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IMS Clinical Study References

The following are the published clinical research papers referenced on the page ‘Why IMS?’ You can view or download a copy (PDF format) of each document by clicking on the 'View Item' buttons to the left.  You do need a PDF viewer installed on your computer to open these document files.  Note:  This website and the reference items on this page are best viewed with Internet Explorer browser.


  1. Sola, AE, Rodenberger ML, Gettys, BB.  Incidence of hypersensitive areas in posterior shoulder muscles; a survey of two hundred young adults.   American Journal of  Physical Medicine 1955 34(6):585-90

  2. Skootsky SA, Jaeger B, Oye RK. Prevalence of myofascial pain in general internal medicine practice.  West J Med 1989 151(2):157-60

  3. Fishbain DA, , Goldberg M, Meagher R, Steele R, Rosomoff H.  Male and female chronic pain patients categorized by DSM-III psychiatric diagnostic criteria. Pain 1986 26:181-197

  4. Weiner DK, Sakamoto S, Perera S, Breuer P  Chronic low back pain in older adults: prevalence, reliability, and validity of physical examination findings.   J Am Geriatr Soc 2006 54: 11-20

  5. Gunn CC, Milbrandt WE, Little AS, Mason KE. Dry needling of muscle motor points for chronic low-back pain. A randomized clinical trial with long-term follow-up.  Spine 1980 5: 279-291

  6. Kim HK, Kim SH, Kim MJ, Lim JA, Kang PS, Woo NS, Lee YC. Intramuscular stimulation in chronic pain patients.  J Korean Pain Soc 2002 15:139-145  (In Korean with English introduction)

  7. Kim JK, Lim KJ, Kim C, Kim HS. Intramuscular stimulation therapy in failed back surgery syndrome patients.  J Korean Pain Soc 2003 16:60-67  (In Korean with English introduction)

  8. Ga H, Koh HJ, Choi JH, Kim CH. Intramuscular and nerve root stimulation vs lidocaine injection of trigger points in myofascial pain syndrome. J Rehabil Med 2007 39: 374-378

  9. Ga H, Choi JH, Park CH, Yoon HJ. Dry needling of trigger points with and without paraspinal needling in myofascial pain syndromes in elderly patients. J Altern Complement Med 2007 13: 617-624

  10. Lim SM, Seo KH, Cho B, Ahn K, Park YH.   A systematic review of the effectiveness and safety of intramuscular stimulation therapy. J Korean Med Assoc 2011  54(10): 1070-1080

  11. Couto C, de Souza ICC, Torres ILS, Fregni F, Caumo W.    Paraspinal stimulation combined with trigger point needling and needle rotation for the treatment of myofascial pain: a randomized sham-controlled clinical trial. Clin J Pain 2014 30:214-223

  12. Authors: David M. Kietrys, PT, PhD, OCS1, Kerstin M. Palombaro, PT, PhD, CAPS2, Erica Azzaretto, PT, DPT3, Richard Hubler, PT, DPT4, Bret Schaller, PT, DPT5, J. Mathew Schlussel, DPT, Mary Tucker, PT, DPT6     Effectiveness of Dry Needling for Upper-Quarter Myofascial Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.   Published: Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2013, Volume: 43 Issue: 9 Pages: 620-634 doi:10.2519/jospt.2013.4668    Read More.

  13. Leonid Kalichman, PT, PhD, and Simon Vulfsons, MD   Dry Needling in the Management of Musculoskeletal Pain    JABFM September–October 2010 Vol. 23 No. 5


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